1912—Legendary filmmaker and photographer Gordon Parks is born in Fort Scott, Kan. In addition to his pioneering work in film and photography, Parks wrote 12 books and authored a ballet entitled “Martin” in honor of civil rights legend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
1924—Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm is born in Brooklyn, N.Y. Chisholm became the leading Black female politician in America. She served in the New York State Assembly, the United States Congress and ran for the Democratic Party nomination for president in 1972. Chisholm died on Jan. 1, 2005.
1641—U.S. (then British) colonies began legalizing slavery. On this day, Massachusetts became the first colony to do so. Other colonies followed suit. Ironically, Massachusetts was also the first state to outlaw slavery as a result of a 1783 State Supreme Court ruling.
1774—In another compromise measure that characterized the legal struggle against slavery in America, the Continental Congress approves a measure banning the further importation of slaves into the country. However, slavery itself remained legal. Plus, it was common for slave ships to violate the ban.
1877—Judge Jonathan Jasper Wright resigns. Wright had been the first Black state Supreme Court judge. However, he resigned on this day (out of possible fear for his life) as the Reconstruction era ended White racists were reasserting control over Southern politics and law. While on the South Carolina Supreme Court, Wright wrote 87 opinions which were noted for “clear thinking and a solid basis in common law.”
1878—Arthur Spingarn is born. He, along with his brother Joel, was one of the principal early organizers of the NAACP. At one point, he headed both the NAACP and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. His contribution to the group was primarily in the areas of law and contacts to liberal, politically well connected Whites.